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This numeric representation of time zones is appended to local times in the same way that alphabetic time zone abbreviations or "Z", as above are appended.
The offset from UTC changes with daylight saving time , e. Time zones are often represented by alphabetic abbreviations such as "EST", "WST", and "CST", but these are not part of the international time and date standard ISO and their use as sole designator for a time zone is discouraged.
These examples give the local time at various locations around the world when daylight saving time is not in effect:. Where the adjustment for time zones results in a time at the other side of midnight from UTC, then the date at the location is one day later or earlier.
The time-zone adjustment for a specific location may vary because of daylight saving time. The more familiar term "UTC offset" is used here rather than the term "zone designator" used by the standard.
For example, the New York Stock Exchange opens at These calculations become more complicated near a daylight saving boundary because the UTC offset for zone X is a function of the UTC time.
Since the s a nautical standard time system has been in operation for ships on the high seas. Nautical time zones are an ideal form of the terrestrial time zone system.
A nautical date line is implied but not explicitly drawn on time zone maps. It follows the th meridian except where it is interrupted by territorial waters adjacent to land, forming gaps: The captain often chooses midnight.
Ships going in shuttle traffic over a time zone border often keep the same time zone all the time, to avoid confusion about work, meal, and shop opening hours.
Still the time table for port calls must follow the land time zone. Ideal time zones, such as nautical time zones, are based on the mean solar time of a particular meridian located in the middle of that zone with boundaries located 7.
In practice, zone boundaries are often drawn much farther to the west with often irregular boundaries, and some locations base their time on meridians located far to the east.
They were obliged to follow German time during the war, and kept it thereafter. In the mid s the Netherlands, as with other European states, began observing daylight saving summer time.
There is a tendency to draw time zone boundaries far to the west of their meridians. The main reason for this is that similar working day schedules around the world have led to people rising on average at Another reason is that it can allow the more efficient use of sunlight.
To make solar noon coincide more with awake time noon i. Many of these locations also use DST , adding yet another nautical time zone to the east.
This westernmost area of continental Spain never experiences sunset before Stockholm has much earlier sunrises, though.
Many countries, and sometimes just certain regions of countries, adopt daylight saving time also known as "Summer Time" during part of the year.
This typically involves advancing clocks by an hour near the start of spring and adjusting back in autumn "spring forward", "fall back".
Modern DST was first proposed in and was in widespread use in as a wartime measure aimed at conserving coal. Despite controversy , many countries have used it off and on since then; details vary by location and change occasionally.
Most countries around the equator do not observe daylight saving time, since the seasonal difference in sunlight is minimal.
Computer operating systems include the necessary support for working with all or almost all possible local times based on the various time zones. Internally, operating systems typically use UTC as their basic time-keeping standard , while providing services for converting local times to and from UTC, and also the ability to automatically change local time conversions at the start and end of daylight saving time in the various time zones.
See the article on daylight saving time for more details on this aspect. Web servers presenting web pages primarily for an audience in a single time zone or a limited range of time zones typically show times as a local time, perhaps with UTC time in brackets.
More internationally oriented websites may show times in UTC only or using an arbitrary time zone. The format is typically based in the W3C Note "datetime".
Email systems and other messaging systems IRC chat , etc. Database records that include a time stamp typically use UTC, especially when the database is part of a system that spans multiple time zones.
The use of local time for time-stamping records is not recommended for time zones that implement daylight saving time because once a year there is a one-hour period when local times are ambiguous.
Calendar systems nowadays usually tie their time stamps to UTC, and show them differently on computers that are in different time zones.
That works when having telephone or internet meetings. It works less well when travelling, because the calendar events are assumed to take place in the time zone the computer or smartphone was on when creating the event.
The event can be shown at the wrong time. There is also an option in newer versions of Microsoft Outlook to enter the time zone in which an event will happen, but often not in other calendar systems.
Calendaring software must also deal with daylight saving time DST. If, for political reasons, the begin and end dates of daylight saving time are changed, calendar entries should stay the same in local time, even though they may shift in UTC time.
In Google Calendar , calendar events are stored in UTC although shown in local time and might be changed by a time-zone changes,  although normal daylight saving start and end are compensated for similar to much other calendar software.
This allows users in multiple timezones to use the same computer, with their respective local times displayed correctly to each user. Time zone information most commonly comes from the IANA time zone database.
Windows -based computer systems prior to Windows used local time, but Windows and later can use UTC as the basic system time. Interaction with the user normally uses local time, and application software is able to calculate the time in various zones.
Terminal Services uses the server base time on the Terminal Server and the client time zone information to calculate the time in the session.
While most application software will use the underlying operating system for timezone information, the Java Platform , from version 1.
This database is updated whenever timezone rules change. Oracle provides an updater tool for this purpose.
As an alternative to the timezone information bundled with the Java Platform, programmers may choose to use the Joda-Time library. Java 8 Date Time.
This does not provide a solution for daylight saving variations. The DateTime object in Perl supports all time zones in the Olson DB and includes the ability to get, set and convert between time zones.
This includes the ability to get and set the default script timezone, and DateTime is aware of its own timezone internally.
The standard module datetime included with Python stores and operates on the timezone information class tzinfo. The third party pytz module provides access to the full IANA time zone database.
Each Smalltalk dialect comes with its own built-in classes for dates, times and timestamps, only a few of which implement the DateAndTime and Duration classes as specified by the ANSI Smalltalk Standard.
VisualWorks provides a TimeZone class that supports up to two annually recurring offset transitions, which are assumed to apply to all years same behavior as Windows time zones.
Squeak provides a Timezone class that does not support any offset transitions. Dolphin Smalltalk does not support time zones at all.
VisualWorks, Squeak, Gemstone, or Dolphin. Orbiting spacecraft typically experience many sunrises and sunsets in a hour period, or in the case of Apollo program astronauts travelling to the moon, none.
A common practice for space exploration is to use the Earth-based time zone of the launch site or mission control.
This keeps the sleeping cycles of the crew and controllers in sync. Timekeeping on Mars can be more complex, since the planet has a solar day of approximately 24 hours and 39 minutes, known as a sol.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Geographical region with a uniform standard time. This article is about time zones in general. For a list of time zones by country, see List of time zones by country.
For more time zone lists, see Lists of time zones. For other uses, see Time zone disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. List of time zone abbreviations.
List of UTC time offsets. It has been suggested that List of UTC time offsets be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since May Retrieved December 5, How we got it.
A Lead to the World". Retrieved October 2, Railroad Time Goes Coast to Coast". Retrieved July 30, Archived from the original PDF on May 14, Google Safe Browsing reports its status as safe.
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